Figure 6.a, 6.b, 6.d. Digital illustration using Adobe Photoshop. Appeared in the journal:
Bester, E., Wolfaardt, G., Aznaveh, N., & Greener, J. (2013). Biofilms’ Role in Planktonic Cell Proliferation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(11), 21965-21982.
Link: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/11/21965/htm (mentioned under Acknowledgement tab)
An illustration of the development of the proposed biofilm surface-associated zone of planktonic cell replication. (a) In the early stages of biofilm development, after individual cells colonize the surface and initiate microcolony formation, planktonic cells are produced and released; (b) As the biofilm continues to develop planktonic cell yield increases, despite EPS accumulation, as well as the potential for the sloughing of larger aggregates of cells embedded within EPS; (c) A Comsol simulation of the wall shear stress resulting from flow rates (mL h−1) of (i) 97.0 × 10−2; (ii) 48.5 × 10−2; (iii) 29.1 × 10−2; and (iv) 28.6 × 10−3 flowing through a microchannel with dimensions of h = 130 μm and w = 300 μm. Shear stress values approached 0 in the corners where the glass substratum meets the channel wall (at x = 0 μm and x = 300 μm) for all flow rates; (d) Cell movement in surface-associated zone. Single cell translocation (shown at the right of the illustration), both with respect to distance and direction, was determined by time-lapse microscopy at various distances (z-direction) from the solid substratum. From these observations it is evident that the outer regions of the biofilm EPS have different viscosity than that of the biofilm core. Images are not drawn to scale.